经常与数字城市、感知城市、无线城市、智能城市、生态城市、低碳城市等区域发展概念相交叉，甚至与电子政务、智能交通、智能电网等行业信息化概念发生混杂。 Smart cities often intersect with regional development concepts such as digital cities, perception cities, wireless cities, smart cities, ecological cities, and low-carbon cities, and are even mixed with industry informationization concepts such as e-government, smart transportation, and smart grids. The interpretation of the concept of a smart city often has its own emphasis. Some views believe that the key lies in the application of technology, some view that the key lies in network construction, some view that the key lies in human participation, and some view that the key lies in smart effects. Some The leading cities for urban informatization construction emphasized people-oriented and sustainable innovation. In an era of rapid change in everything in the world, there is never a lack of concepts. However, from the moment the new concept is conceived, it is bound to be the beginning of the decline and forgetting of the old concept. The "smart city" can't escape the fate of various concepts that have been forgotten and fallen.
The growth of cities has always been closely related to the expansion of information technology. With the development of science and technology, cities have gradually transformed from an industrial society to a knowledge society, and the form of the city has also gained a new attitude and definition in the process of this transformation-smarter cities. From the cities that people imagined in the past, to the cities that they saw with their eyes, and gradually to the "walking cities" proposed by British architect Ron Herren. Cities have gradually extended from static to dynamic, leveraging the convenience of the Internet, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, and big data. And all of the current status of the city that has gathered human wisdom will be completed "smartly" by humans under the "smart city" concept.
Therefore, "smart city" can also be called "smart city". Clever, often known as having characteristics of vital signs and many body-aware creatures (humans), so cities are often given life by everyone. The city itself is the result of the continuous growth of life, and the "smart city" is a constantly developing concept, a product of the development of urban informatization to a certain stage. With the development of technology, economy and society, it is gradually improved.
In 2015, Eric Schmidt, then chairman of Google's board of directors, made a speech at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, which caused a stir. His view of the future Internet is: "My answer is very simple, the Internet will disappear." Cook, then CEO of Apple, once said that customers should put down their phones, talk face-to-face with friends, or as the movie owner said Yes, movies are the same, and people should spend more time reading or walking.
From the perspective of onlookers, this is just an "intelligent city" where anti-intelligent products and smart products are gradually "invading"-we should live emotionally, comfortably, and express vital signs more actively. However, this is not the case, and their intentions are even very clear: let smart products gradually integrate into the city, and make the traditional cities gradually become smarter and more human. Without people's consciousness— " Far-reaching technologies are those that have disappeared. They integrate themselves into our daily lives so that we are indistinguishable. "
1. "Smart cities" are not simply "smart cities"
However, today's status quo is not the case. Today's technology has not reached the level of seamless intelligent interaction, that is, the relationship between technology and life and the city has not achieved the purpose of harmonious coexistence. When human beings are attacking technology (intelligence), it shows that the relationship between man and technology, and technology and the city is split, not integrated.
Therefore, "smart cities" are not intelligent cities. It is simply the intelligentization of the city, the beginning of the war between man and technology, not the progress of human civilization. In the last century, led by developed countries and taking the world as the starting point, we will build a "smart planet" as the ultimate goal, and begin to introduce advanced modern technologies to manage the gradually deteriorating environmental problems and "big cities" in urban development. Disease "problem. Therefore, the more specific concept of "smart city" and the viewpoint of smart construction of the city have been introduced point by point.
The real rise of the "smart city" concept dates back to 1993. Since the concept of "smart earth" was proposed, the construction of "smart city" has quietly risen worldwide since that year. Many developed countries first entered the ranks of "smart cities", and they linked the public service resource information such as water, electricity, oil, gas, and transportation in the cities through the Internet, and responded intelligently to better serve them. The needs of citizens in education, life, work, medical care, etc., as well as better and more intelligent improvement of government's management of transportation, environmental control, and intelligent construction of cities.
Judging from the "smart city" construction first developed in developed countries and the measures taken by developed countries under this concept, the "smart city" is indeed very in line with the perspective of intelligent construction and management of cities. Therefore, for a long time, the true meaning (or definition) of "smart city" has not been very clearly defined, and most people think that the construction of "smart city" is the construction of "smart city".
At present, most experts and scholars or research institutions tend to regard "smart cities" as technology-intelligent cities, that is, if the construction of "smart cities" is to be more successful, the key lies in the application of technology; some people or stations From the perspective of the Internet, the Internet of Things, and even digitalization, the construction of "smart cities" is regarded as an important construction of the network; even some other people, from the perspective of people's livelihood, believe that the construction of "smart cities" requires human participation and people-oriented And sustainable innovation.
From these aspects, different people stand on "smart cities" from different angles, and their starting points and priorities are almost all expressing their opinions. However, no matter how many viewpoints there are, the understanding of "smart city" cannot be regarded as a city's intelligence one-sidedly.
Therefore, it is easier to re-understand the language stated by the chairman of the board of Google and the CEO of Apple mentioned above: people and technology, technology and city, people and city, not only make cities more intelligent All that can be explained. Explaining the construction of "smart city" from the perspective of human psychological needs, it is a new theory and concept of intelligent construction of new cities based on people-oriented and continuous innovation in digital and cyberspace.
Therefore, "smart city" is just one of all the city forms in which "technology" is an important unit of "smart city". Looking at the "big city" from the grander proposition of urbanization, the intelligentization of cities is the technical means that must be taken to solve many problems in cities. However, the smart construction of cities does not take technology as the core, but the people-based approach mentioned above, which promotes the rational and effective operation of cities in different forms, and promotes the friendly and harmonious development of urban society in order to promote the sustainable development of the national economy. development of.
The reason why one aspect of "smart city" is viewed from the perspective of "smart city", I think one of the goals it wants to achieve is to achieve the most "fine management" of the city in order to achieve The "new urbanization" road in the context of urbanization. Therefore, not only has "smart city" become one of the goals of building a "smart city" with technology as the main means, it has also become one of the directions for people to pursue a more convenient lifestyle.
However, as mentioned above, a "smart city" cannot always replace a "smart city", but can only be one of the achievements of a technology in the construction of a "smart city". As stated in "Artificial Intelligence", for a long period of time, intelligence cannot enable people to interact seamlessly with technology, technology and the city. Instead, they should seek out all the intelligence related to the city in the running-in of each other. The equipment is truly an urbanization road towards the human development of the city.
2. From digital city to "smart city"
Judging from the current status of urban development, smart cities have become the biggest trend in the future. Of course, this is viewed from the perspective of technological development. Therefore, the "smart city" has the same construction as the "smart city" mentioned above. It realizes comprehensive perception, ubiquitous interconnection and convergence applications through the application of new generation information technology such as the Internet of Things and cloud computing represented by mobile technology.
From the perspective of social development, the construction of "smart cities" requires more important and practical tools and methods to achieve sustainable innovation in a knowledge society environment characterized by user innovation, open innovation, and collaborative innovation.
That is to say, social development is the most basic requirement to generate value innovation, and people-oriented to realize the comprehensive development of economy, society, and environment. The construction of "smart cities" with the background of a knowledge society environment will be an advanced form of information-based city development after the digital city.
Therefore, "smart city" is not only a "smart city", but also a "digital city". Similarly, looking at the digital city from the perspective of technology, it is the primary form before completing the advanced form of the development of the "smart city", which is the most advanced form of informatization. Judging from the current status of urban development, we are indeed in the transition phase from a digital city to a "smart city".
Although the digital city allows the city, the larger body, to achieve initial information transparency, and with the rise of the network empire, the city has gradually realized the mutual access of digital information. However, this does not mean that a digital city can make the city's operation and management more sophisticated and more humane.
Therefore, digital cities have obvious differences and defects to be corrected compared to "smart cities". They cannot simply package digital cities that have already been reached and they are called "smart cities." Otherwise, it will not only be inconsistent with the construction logic of the "smart city", but will become a stumbling block for the city to develop towards a more perfect city.
From the current point of view, as most people think, digital cities only reproduce traditional cities in virtual space through the digitization of urban geospatial information and all aspects of city information. It does not really achieve people ’s perception. The goal of "smart city" construction is to further utilize sensing technology and intelligent technology on the basis of digitalization to realize automatic, real-time and comprehensive perception of city operations.
Furthermore, digital cities have only improved the communication of information in each industry, but have not really achieved the integration of various industries. Smart cities, on the other hand, are just breaking the industry's fragmented and relatively closed information architecture, so that they tend to be more open and collaborative, and give play to the overall effectiveness of urban information.
In addition, from the perspective of technology and information applications, digital cities are actually not much different from the smart cities mentioned above. They will all be more in-depth use of technology. However, the goal of a smart city is to achieve a more sustainable and user-friendly city operation on the basis of both. Then, at this time, on the basis of more digitalization, informationization, and intelligence, it is necessary to realize the participation of government, market, and social forces, and then create more public and unique values.
"Smart City" emphasizes the achievements of people-centered urban construction. It pays more attention to the participation of citizens and the perception of most people. On the basis of human-centeredness, it further realizes the concentration of smart technologies and the development of smart high-end industries , Efficient service system and continuous innovation. As a result, from the past agricultural society to the later industrial society, and then to the knowledge society, more intelligent social changes have been completed in the true sense. Smart cities are also realized.
3. The future of "smart cities" is more in small and medium cities
At present, China has achieved little success in the construction of "smart cities." In the more developed cities and cities with obvious advantages in the country, they are all on the road to "smart cities", and they are more stable and longer-term, such as the first-tier cities Beijing, the open cities Shanghai, Shenzhen, and many coastal cities, but others Inland cities and underdeveloped cities have not moved towards the construction of "smart cities", and even basic digital cities are difficult to achieve.
The reason for the difference in distribution is, to a large extent, because there are still doubts about the concept of "smart city" and do not really understand the true meaning of smart city, so they mistakenly believe that "smart city" is a city under technical operation. Without technology, the basic conditions for building a "smart city" cannot be achieved without technology. This statement is very inaccurate. From the beginning, the concept of "smart city" was designed to change the development of China's urbanization. As mentioned above, it was a guide for China's new urbanization.
In "Industry and Empire: The Modernization of Britain", the author puts forward an inquisitive point about the changes of British industrial society: the old industrial society came from abandoning agricultural society, and a new industrial society. It is a society that does not tolerate nostalgia. In fact, this sentence does not specifically refer to the indifferent development of the industrial society regardless of the emotional needs of the people, but to say that with the change of the industrial society, the knowledge society will return agriculture (nostalgia) to the city after the industrial society. The center of the stage to achieve smarter development of the city. Because, in many people's inherent views, we cannot deny the contribution of agriculture to cities. A smarter agriculture, even a smarter small town, will be the key to solving many problems in cities.
In China, more reasons for achieving the goal of new-type urbanization are to realize the revitalization of rural areas in China, or to realize the return of population in small and medium-sized cities, with the help of the high concentration of smart high-end industries and technologies. Therefore, some scholars believe that the construction of China's "smart city" is intended to transform the urban development mode and improve the objective requirements of urban development quality. It is even more necessary to achieve the innovation and creativity of urbanization, thereby achieving Balanced and sustainable development of towns. Therefore, from the above perspective, considering the two subjects of balanced development of people and larger cities, the future of "smart cities" is largely in small and medium-sized cities, not in digital cities. The "smart city" gradually completed on the basis.
In addition, "smart city" is not only an application of technology, but also an intelligent solution to urban traffic congestion. Then, from the perspective of the current forces leading the floating population, the future direction of the floating population must be small and medium cities. Therefore, the construction of "smart cities" in small and medium cities may become possible, and it will also become the main investment of enterprises of all parties. direction. As the author of "Artificial Intelligence" said, technology investors from all sides must also take into account the sustainability of urban development while obtaining commercial benefits. Therefore, what can be seen from the above language is that the future of "smart cities" is not necessarily in developed cities. The future of the "smart city" practice should be in small and medium cities that need to address people's daily lives. Because the future of the floating population is there. To make a city better, we must first make the city smarter and more life. The "smart city" needs to be built intelligently, with a more open structure, innovative ideas that integrate development, and clearer concepts.